From the main Project Page:
LaTeX is a high-quality typesetting system; it includes features designed for the production of technical and scientific documentation. LaTeX is the de facto standard for the communication and publication of scientific documents.
LaTeX on Windows
In Windows, it is highly recommended to use a full-featured suite such as TeX Live or MiKTeX. Both of these suites include everything required for end-to-end LaTeX compilation and filetype conversation. Please contact the HelpDesk for assistance with installing or using these on a UMIACS-supported Windows machine.
LaTeX on Linux/UNIX
As with Windows, there are full-featured suites available to compile and convert filetypes. On our supported RHEL5 and RHEL6 systems, Kile is pre-installed and located at /usr/local/bin/kile. TeX Live is also available for Linux, with OSX support made available as Mac TeX